Atenciones en Clínicas de Plantas y asistencias a los agricultores en la Amazonía Peruana

Texto escribido por Martha Passador y Javier Franco.

English summary follows

Señora Eugenia: Oportunidad para aprender y llevar este conocimiento para la tierra donde trabajamos nosotros. Foto: Martha Passador

Señora Eugenia: Oportunidad para aprender y llevar este conocimiento para la tierra donde trabajamos nosotros. Foto: Martha Passador

El éxito de una clínica de plantas se puede evaluar por la cantidad de productores que buscan este servicio. Algunos traen sus muestras, o solamente conversan con los doctores de plantas.

En determinadas regiones, hay cultivos y problemas agrícolas que son comunes para todos. En estos casos, los doctores de plantas y técnicos que trabajan conjuntamente en las clínicas, ofrecen charlas técnicas acerca de temas relacionados al manejo, control, buenas prácticas de cultivo y otras informaciones necesarias para evitar pérdidas en los cultivos.

Actualmente, ésta es una práctica común en las clínicas, y hace que el agricultor se sienta mejor acogido. Un ejemplo son las atenciones ofrecidas por los doctores de plantas de la Estación Experimental  Agrícola “El Porvenir” del Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria (INIA), en la región de Tarapoto. Estas atenciones a  los productores locales son ofrecidas gracias a los trabajos de los doctores de plantas Edison Hidalgo y Patricia Orihuela, al trabajo del INIA y los Coordinadores Nacionales Luis Torres (EEA-La Molina) y Luis Navarrete (EEA-La Molina), junto al Programa Plantwise.

Tarapoto es una ciudad del nororiente del Perú, ubicada a una altitud de 250 m a orillas del río Shilcayo, tributario del Mayo. Es una de las principales ciudades turísticas y comerciales de la Amazonía Peruana. Es una región dónde se encuentra una gran superficie con el cultivo de café, por lo tanto, las principales preocupaciones están relacionadas a este cultivo.

Además de las  consultas,  estas actividades cuentan con el apoyo del ingeniero Román Pinedo-INIA, que ofrece explicaciones y recomendaciones para el manejo del cultivo de café y sobre el control de plagas y enfermedades. Los problemas que tienen los agricultores en sus cultivos de café son: principalmente la roya (Hemileia vastatrix), nematodos (Meloidogyne sp.), manchas causadas por Cercospora coffeicola y antracnosis (Colletotrichum spp.). Mientras son presentadas las informaciones, los agricultores también pueden preguntar y aclarar sus dudas. Es un espacio abierto para cambios de informaciones entre todos, agricultores y técnicos. Después de la charla, el ingeniero Román Pinedo, también trabaja con Patricia Orihuela en la atención en la clínica de plantas.

La señora Eugenia Arivalo, una agricultora de 57 años de edad que vive en la provincia de Rioja,  y una de las muchas mujeres que buscan el apoyo de las clínicas, afirma que las recomendaciones que recibe son viables y le ayudan a mantener las buenas prácticas en su cultivo. “Siempre estoy presente en las fechas establecidas para el servicio de clínica, es  una oportunidad para aprender y llevar este conocimiento para mi familia y para la tierra donde trabajamos nosotros” – dijo la señora Eugenia.

Este servicio brinda a los agricultores soluciones y respuestas a una infinidad de dudas, así como conocimientos que mejoran su producción.

In Tarapoto region, plant doctors Edison Hidalgo and Patricia Orihuela provide technical assistance and advice on coffee production at the Experimental Station El Porvenir (INIA). During this clinic session, coffee growers have received recommendations on pest and disease management, including coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix), nematodes (Meloidogyne sp.), leaf spot Cercospora coffeicola and anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.).  

Mrs. Eugenia Arivalo, a coffee producer of 57 years old who lives in the province of Pioja and one of the many women who seek the support of the Plant clinics, states that the recommendations that she receives are effective and help implementing good management practices. “I’m always attending Plant clinic sessions for the scheduled dates, it’s an opportunity to learn and bring back this knowledge to my family and to the land where we work”- said Mrs. Arivalo.

Factsheet of the month: December – Management of white stem borer of coffee

The white stem borer, also known as Seto Gavaro, is a major pest of coffee in Nepal. In fact, the government and industry hold the pest largely responsible for the drop in production between mid-2012 and mid-2013. Coffee is a major cash crop in Nepal so it is important that farmers do not lose yield to pests such as the white stem borer. Earlier this year, the government set up a new Coffee Research Centre in Baletaksar after a major outbreak of the white stem borer.

To find out more about white stem borers on coffee and their management, read this month’s Plantwise Factsheet for Farmers which was written by staff from the Pesticide Registration and Management Division, Goverment of Nepal.

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Update: Plant Health News (23 Apr 14)

The proportion of coffee producing areas used to cultivate shade-grown coffee has reduced by almost 20% in as many years (Fernando Rebelo, GFDL)

The proportion of coffee producing areas used to cultivate shade-grown coffee is decreasing (Fernando Rebelo, GFDL)

Here’s a taste of some of the latest stories about plant health, including the postharvest pathology of beans, a reduction in the proportion of shade grown coffee and the filamentous fungus that may be effective at controlling sugarcane nematodes.

Click on the link to read more of the latest plant health news!
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The Bird, the Borer and the Bean

Yellow Warbler © Tom Tetzner

Yellow Warbler © Tom Tetzner

A recent study carried out in Costa Rica found that insectivorous birds such as the Yellow Warbler help to reduce infestations of the Coffee Berry Borer Beetle on coffee plantations by 50%. This free pest control service is estimated to save a medium sized coffee farm up to $9,400 per year. The study carried out by biologists from Stanford University could provide incentive for biodiversity conservation and enhancement of ecosystem services and also offer hope to coffee farmers devastated by the beetle.

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What CABI Is Doing To Tackle Major Coffee Rust Outbreaks In Central America

Guatemala has declared a state of agricultural emergency after coffee rust fungus has affected approximately 193,000ha of coffee, equating to 70% of the national crop. As a result of the outbreak, Guatemala is releasing $13.7m (£8.7m) in emergency aid to help farmers buy pesticides and to inform farmers on ways to manage the disease. Honduras and Costa Rica have already declared national emergency and El Salvador and Panama are also affected.

Coffee is a major export crop in many Central American countries and it is thought that this disease outbreak, which has been called “the worst seen in Central America and Mexico” by John Vandermeer, ecologist at the University of Michigan, will lead to big job losses. The Institute of Coffee in Costa Rica has estimated that the latest coffee rust outbreak may reduce the 2013-2014 harvest by 50% or more in the worst affected areas.

To find out more information about coffee rust view our Plantwise Knowledge Bank- Coffee Leaf Rust PDF booklet.

Symptoms of Coffee Rust (Hemileia vastatrix) © Carlos Roberto Carvalho, Ronaldo C. Fernandes, Guilherme Mendes Almeida Carvalho, Robert W. Barreto, Harry C. Evans (2011): Cryptosexuality and the Genetic Diversity Paradox in Coffee Rust, Hemileia vastatrix. PLoS ONE 6(11): e26387. {{doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026387}} (CC-BY 2.5)

Symptoms of Coffee Rust (Hemileia vastatrix) © Carlos Roberto Carvalho, Ronaldo C. Fernandes, Guilherme Mendes Almeida Carvalho, Robert W. Barreto, Harry C. Evans (2011): Cryptosexuality and the Genetic Diversity Paradox in Coffee Rust, Hemileia vastatrix. PLoS ONE 6(11): e26387. {{doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026387}} (CC-BY 2.5)

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The Climate Reality Project- Coffee Production Hit by Climate Change


Video streaming by Ustream

Recently aired as part of The Climate Reality Project (founded by Al Gore), this documentary contains a 5 minute  film about climate change and smallholder coffee production in Colombia. The film featured as part of a 24 hour online stream of climate documentaries and discussions to raise awareness and explain the varying impacts of global climate change.

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Coffee Production in Hot Water- The Impacts of Climate Change on the Future of Coffee Crops

Roasted Arabica coffee beans. Arabica coffee is highly prized as having the best flavour and quality of all coffee varieties, but the future of Arabica coffee is threatened by the impacts of climate change © Sage Ross, via Wikimedia Commons (License CC-BY-SA 3.0, 2.5, 2.0, 1.0)

Coffee (Coffea) is the one of the world’s favourite drinks and the second most traded commodity after oil, accounting for annual retail value of US$ 90 billion. The two main species used in the production of coffee are Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica), which accounts for 70% of coffee production, and Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora). The productivity of Arabica and the distribution of many coffee pests and diseases are strongly linked to climate and seasonality. A series of recent studies have forecast the predicted effects of climate change on both the present and future distribution of Arabica coffee and the effects of climate change on the distribution and lifecycle of the world’s worst coffee pest, the Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei).

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