Bolivia: caso confirmado de la Moniliasis del cacao

Frutos con varios síntomas (CABI)
Frutos con varios síntomas (CABI)

En junio 2015, se confirmó la presencia del hongo de la Moniliasis del cacao en Alto Beni, Departamento de La Paz a donde 85% de la producción de cacao es producida por aproximadamente 3000 pequeños y pequeñas agricultores. Este hongo (Moniliophthora roreri) es limitado en 13 países de América Latina y causa pérdidas importantes por los productores y productoras. Los síntomas característicos del hongo en los frutos incluyen madurez prematura, deformación, lesiones largas de color marrón y necrosis interna de los tejidos.

Para mantener un cultivo sano y prevenir la dispersión del hongo, revise la Lista Verde sobre la Moniliasis del cacao o para más detalles técnicos revise la Hoja técnica de Plantwise. Si se detecta los síntomas en regiones libres de la enfermedad, contacte el Ministerio de Agricultura de su país para recomendaciones de control locales.

Lista Verde: Moniliasis del cacao
Lista Verde: Moniliasis del cacao

Sweet Like Chocolate: Breeding Programs Combating Fungal Diseases of Cocoa in Ecuador

Chocolate, a popular product of Cocoa © Andre Karwath (Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 2.5 license)

Cocoa, Theobroma cacao L. is the third most important export product in Ecuador; a country which produces 70% of the world’s highly prized Arriba cocoa. However, the sustainability of this crop is threatened by a number of devastating pest species including fungal diseases and insect pests. Among the most severe are the closely related fungal diseases Witches’ Broom Disease Moniliophthora perniciosa and Frosty Pod Rot Moniliophthora roreri, both of which occur in Ecuador. Frosty Pod Rot is an invasive disease which was originally identified in Ecuador in 1917 and has since spread rapidly to other Latin American countries. The fungal pathogen that causes Witches’ Broom Disease is a close relative of Frosty Pod Rot in the same Moniliophthora genus. In addition to the Moniliophthora diseases, Phytophthora spp. can lead to Black Rot of cocoa.These fungal diseases are a principle constraint on world cocoa production and affect the pods, flowers, leaves and stems, causing a decline in production and reduction in bean quality with infested plantations suffering dramatic yield losses and in some cases total loss of production. Breeding for disease resistance in cocoa is a key factor in maintaining sustainability of cocoa, since there is widespread concern over fungicide resistance, the safety and effectiveness of widespread pesticide use and recent tightening of regulations regarding pesticide residues on cocoa. The INIAP, national research institute of Ecuador, in collaboration with Mars Chocolate and the USDA is investing in substantial cocoa breeding programs with the aim of developing more productive, disease resistant, high yielding cocoa plants for Ecuadorian cocoa farmers.  Continue reading