Wheat production in Pakistan – Producción de trigo en México

Infected wheat by P. striiformis/Trigo infectado por P. striiformis (Z. Kang)
Infected wheat by P. striiformis/Trigo infectado por P. striiformis (Z. Kang)

Pakistan

According to Reuters (source provided by ProMED-mail), farmers from districts southeast of Islamabad in Punjab province have seen their crops affected by unusual weather this year. First affected by hailstorm and now by heavy rain and cold weather, wheat fields of the region have been damaged severely. Some farmers have lost up to 70 % of their fields and are still waiting to harvest their crops three weeks behind schedule. Experts said that delays in harvesting and damaged plants can increase the chances of attack by yellow rust also called stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis). The fungal disease causes yellow leaf stripes, loss of vigour and stunting of plants.

Extension officers can review factsheets provided by Plantwise such as the Green and Yellow list written in Zambia* and the Plantwise technical factsheet on yellow rust to create a new and country-specific extension message for Pakistan on how to prevent and manage the disease.

*Please note that the pesticides mentioned in this factsheets are specific to Zambia and before giving recommendations check against your national registered pesticide lists.

México

Según El Diario (fuente proporcionada por ProMED-mail), la producción de trigo en la región de Nuevo Casas Grandes (Chihuahua) se ve afectada por la roya amarilla (causada por el hongo Puccinia striiformis) cual ocasionará una disminución del rendimiento. La roya amarilla es una enfermedad muy agresiva en condiciones favorables para su desarrollo (agua libre, temperatura de 10-15 °C y viento) y cuando se usó variedades susceptibles. Es la enfermedad que produce mayores pérdidas en el cultivo del trigo debido a su gran capacidad de dispersión a largas distancias. Se identifica por la formación des estrías estrechas en las hojas, pérdida de vigor y retraso en el crecimiento de las plantas.

Los extensionistas pueden revisar las hojas informativas de Plantwise como la Lista Verde y Amarilla elaborada en Zambia* y la hoja técnica de Plantwise sobre la roya amarilla para crear material nuevo y específico para México sobre cómo prevenir y manejar la enfermedad.

*Por favor, tenga en cuenta que las pesticidas indicadas en la hoja informativa son específicas para Zambia y antes de dar recomendaciones verificar la lista de pesticidas registradas en su país.

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Update: New Pest & Disease Records (01 Apr 15)

TSWV is one of the viruses detected on chillies in Mexico © Gerald Holmes, Cal Poly via Bugwood
TSWV is one of the viruses detected on chillies in Mexico © Gerald Holmes, Cal Poly via Bugwood

We’ve selected a few of the latest new geographic, host and species records for plant pests and diseases from CAB Abstracts. Records this fortnight include the first report of Alternaria leaf blight disease on oil palm in Thailand, caused by Alternaria longipes, the detection of a virus affecting chilli pepper in Chihuahua, Mexico and the association of Papaya leaf curl virus with the leaf curl disease of grain amaranth in India. 

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Mexico eradicates Mediterranean fruit fly

Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata)
Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). ©Daniel Feliciano – CC BY-SA 3.0

Mexico’s Secretary of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fishing and Food (SAGARPA) has declared the country free of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, in a development that is expected to ease trade restrictions and boost the produce industry.

The declaration will positively impact on 1.8 million hectares of growing land for some key agricultural crops – including tomatoes, mangoes and avocados – with an annual production of 17.6 million metric tons (MT). The total value of the affected produce is estimated to be around 86 billion pesos (US$6.4 billion).

SAGARPA said the fruit fly’s eradication was a result of phytosanitary measures that had been in place for 35 years.

Fruit flies are a menacing pest across the world, causing damage to fruits and other agricultural crops with large financial consequences for international trade when export bans are imposed. For example, Pakistani mango imports were at risk of being banned by the EU earlier this year due to fruit fly infestations (http://www.newspakistan.pk/2014/06/23/eu-ban-import-pakistani-mangoes-due-infestation/), and in May this year the EU controversially banned all imports of Indian mangoes due to the discovery of tropical pests in the imported produce (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-27238239).

Do you have a problem with fruit flies in your crop? Find out how to manage fruit flies at a local level by reading pest management factsheets on the Plantwise knowledge bank: http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/SearchResults.aspx?q=”fruit fly”.

Find out more about the distribution of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, by clicking on the image below. Distribution records in CABI’s products (Plantwise knowledge bank and CPC) will be updated shortly.

Ceratitis capitata global distribution
Global distribution of Ceratitis capitata, compiled by the Plantwise knowledge bank based on published reports in the scientific literature. ©CABI 2014. http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank.

Update: Plant Health News (18 Dec 13)

New technology can improve the detection papaya viruses © Prato9x
New technology can improve the detection of papaya viruses © Prato9x

Here’s a taste of some of the latest stories about plant health, including the use of technology to improve the detection of papaya viruses, toxins discovered in banana root tissue kill root pests and the vital importance of water conservation in Nigeria to avoid food crises.

Click on the links to read more of the latest plant health news!

 

 

 

 

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How The Gates Foundation and Carlos Slim are Supporting Innovation and Crop Improvement For Farmers

Carlos Slim, Bill Gates and Mexican Dignitaries visit CIMMYT to inaugurate the new Bioscience facilities © Eruviel Avila (CC-BY-NC-SA 2.0)
Carlos Slim, Bill Gates and Mexican Dignitaries visit CIMMYT to inaugurate the new Bioscience facilities © Eruviel Avila (CC-BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Fundación Carlos Slim have announced a partnership in support of efforts by the Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center CIMMYT) in Mexico to develop and disseminate higher-yielding, more resilient wheat and maize varieties. Continue reading

Improved Pest Control From Macho Hormone Treated Male Fruit Flies

Mexican Fruit Fly Anastrepha ludens © Jefferey W Lotz (CC-BY-3.0-US license, via Wikimedia Commons)

The Mexican Fruit Fly Anastrepha ludens is the most important native fruit fly pest of citrus in America and also infests other economically important crops such as peaches, peppers and mangoes. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Mexico has developed a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) method which involves exposing huge quantities of male fruit flies to irradiation before releasing them en masse  to mate with wild female flies. The male flies are exposed to enough radiation to sterilise them, so that mating with wild females results in the production of non-viable eggs. Over time repeated releases of large quantities of sterilised male flies causes the target pest population to collapse. The use of the SIT applied as part of an area-wide integrated pest management approach provides an environmentally safe and species-specific method to suppress, and in some cases eradicate insects of agricultural, veterinary and medical importance worldwide. The success of the SIT in effectively controlling target pest insect populations requires males to be able to successfully compete against wild unsterilized males to mate with females. Recent developments to improve SIT program effectiveness have been discovered by scientists from the Agricultural Research Service who found that the use of methoprene, an analogue of an insect hormone, and additional protein hydrolysate in the fruit fly diet helped to make sterilised males more “macho” by increasing their competitiveness in the wild, therefore making them more attractive as a mate to females.

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Puddles of pests: why the weather really matters

Weather – an integral part of
farming ©Paul Dickson

While folklore has worked well for many farmers over the years, watching out for red skies or the wind changing direction isn’t always convenient, and a little more notice of hurricanes and tropical storms is usually appreciated. With recent stories of rain beating down on mangoes in Mexico, hail wreaking havoc on tobacco in Zimbabwe and droughts leaving crops more than a little thirsty in Cameroon, it seemed like good timing for the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to announce its new development plans. Promising not only accurate predictions, but also free and easy access to more information than ever before, this latest advance is expected to go some way towards improving food security, particularly in developing countries.

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